2016 May, Seven Themes of the Quran, Dr Emdad Khan

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Seven Themes of the Quran, Dr Emdad Khan

  1. Introduction of  the oneness  of the unique God

Muslims believe in one God who created the universe and has power over everything within it. He is unique and exalted over every thing He creates and His greatness can not be compared to His Creation. Furthermore, He  is the only one deserving any worship and ultimate purpose of all creation is to submit to Him.

quran

The Islamic understanding of God is distinct from all other religions and beliefs in various respects since it is based on  a pure and clear understanding of Oneness of God. The chapter 3, Ikhlas and verse 2.255 and many other verses explains the characteristics of God.

قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ (١) ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ (٢) لَمۡ يَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ يُولَدۡ (٣) وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدٌ (٤)

Surah Al-Ikhlas

Say (O Muhammad (SAW)): “He is Allâh, (the) One.[] (1) “Allâh-us-Samad (السيد الذي يصمد إليه في الحاجات) [Allâh the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)]. (2) “He begets not, nor was He begotten;[] (3) “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.” (4)

سُوۡرَةُ البَقَرَة

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَىُّ ٱلۡقَيُّومُ‌ۚ لَا تَأۡخُذُهُ ۥ سِنَةٌ۬ وَلَا نَوۡمٌ۬‌ۚ لَّهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشۡفَعُ عِندَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ يَعۡلَمُ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُمۡ‌ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىۡءٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمِهِۦۤ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ‌ۚ وَسِعَ كُرۡسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ‌ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُ ۥ حِفۡظُهُمَا‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ (٢٥٥)

Allâh! Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter . And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursî[] extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. [This Verse 2:255 is called Ayat-ul-Kursî.]— (2:255)

2. Life after death, the day of judgement,

In Islam death is part of life cycle. Every soul must taste the aroma of death. God states,  And verily, it is We who gives life and who gives death; it is We who remain Inheritors”, (15.23).

He also states ,”There is no God but He; it is He who gives life and gives death, the Lord and Cherisher to you and your earlier ancestors, (44.8).

As Muslims  we believe that the present life is only a trial preparation for the next life in hereafter. This life is a test for each individual for the life after death.  A day will come when the whole universe will be destroyed and the dead will be resurrected for judgment by God.  This day will be the beginning of a life that will never end.  This day is the Day of Judgment.  On that day, all people will be rewarded by God according to their beliefs and deeds.  Those who die while believing that “There is no true god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God” and are Muslim will be rewarded on that day and will be admitted to Paradise forever, as God has said:

“And those who believe and do good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they dwell therein forever. “ (2:82)

But those who die while not believing that “There is no true god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God” or are not Muslim will lose Paradise forever and will be sent to Hellfire, as God has said: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him and he will be one of the losers in the Hereafter.” ( 3:85)
سُوۡرَةُ الواقِعَة

إِذَا وَقَعَتِ ٱلۡوَاقِعَةُ (١) لَيۡسَ لِوَقۡعَتِہَا كَاذِبَةٌ (٢) خَافِضَةٌ۬ رَّافِعَةٌ (٣) إِذَا رُجَّتِ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ رَجًّ۬ا (٤) وَبُسَّتِ ٱلۡجِبَالُ بَسًّ۬ا (٥) فَكَانَتۡ هَبَآءً۬ مُّنۢبَثًّ۬ا (٦)
Surah Al-Waqia

When the event befalleth – (1) There is no denying that it will befall – (2) Abasing (some), exalting (others); (3) When the earth is shaken with a shock (4) And the hills are ground to powder (5) So that they become a scattered dust, (6)

سُوۡرَةُ یسٓ

وَنُفِخَ فِى ٱلصُّورِ فَإِذَا هُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَجۡدَاثِ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ يَنسِلُونَ (٥١) قَالُواْ يَـٰوَيۡلَنَا مَنۢ بَعَثَنَا مِن مَّرۡقَدِنَاۜ‌ۗ هَـٰذَا مَا وَعَدَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وَصَدَقَ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلُونَ (٥٢) إِن ڪَانَتۡ إِلَّا صَيۡحَةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬ فَإِذَا هُمۡ جَمِيعٌ۬ لَّدَيۡنَا مُحۡضَرُونَ (٥٣)فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ لَا تُظۡلَمُ نَفۡسٌ۬ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا تُجۡزَوۡنَ إِلَّا مَا ڪُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ (٥٤)

Sura  Yaseen

And the trumpet is blown and indeed ! from the graves they hie unto their Lord, (51) Crying: Woe upon us! Who hath raised us from our place of sleep? This is that which the Beneficent did promise, and the messengers spoke truth. (52) It is but one Shout, and behold them brought together before Us! (53) This day no soul is wronged in aught; nor are you requited aught save what you used to do. (54)

3. Final destination of heaven or hell fire,

Paradise is the tremendous reward which God has prepared for the believers and those who obey Him. It is complete with joy, happiness and pleasure, where everything is there and nothing can disturb its purity and tranquillity. What God and His messenger have informed us about it, our heads spin as we are not able to comprehend the greatness of such blessings.

In the hadith qudsi, it is stated, “ I have prepared for my righteous slaves that which no eyes has seen, no ear has heard and has never crossed the mind of any human being”. God also states in the Quran, “Only he who is saved from the fire and admitted to the Garden, will have indeed attained the object of life, i.e, been most successful” 3.185.

Hell is the abode which God has prepared for those who do  believe in Him, whose who rebel against His Commands and disbelieve in His prophets. It is the place of punishment for evildoers. God states, “Our Lord ! Verily, whom you admit to fire, indeed You have disgraced him, and never will be the wrong doers find any helpers,” (3.192)

إِنَّ أَصۡحَـٰبَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ فِى شُغُلٍ۬ فَـٰكِهُونَ (٥٥) هُمۡ وَأَزۡوَٲجُهُمۡ فِى ظِلَـٰلٍ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرَآٮِٕكِ مُتَّكِـُٔونَ (٥٦) لَهُمۡ فِيہَا فَـٰكِهَةٌ۬ وَلَهُم مَّا يَدَّعُونَ (٥٧) سَلَـٰمٌ۬ قَوۡلاً۬ مِّن رَّبٍّ۬ رَّحِيمٍ۬ (٥٨) وَٱمۡتَـٰزُواْ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أَيُّہَا ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ (٥٩) ۞ أَلَمۡ أَعۡهَدۡ إِلَيۡكُمۡ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ أَن لَّا تَعۡبُدُواْ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ‌ۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَكُمۡ عَدُوٌّ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ (٦٠) وَأَنِ ٱعۡبُدُونِى‌ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَٲطٌ۬ مُّسۡتَقِيمٌ۬ (٦١) وَلَقَدۡ أَضَلَّ مِنكُمۡ جِبِلاًّ۬ كَثِيرًا‌ۖ أَفَلَمۡ تَكُونُواْ تَعۡقِلُونَ (٦٢) هَـٰذِهِۦ جَهَنَّمُ ٱلَّتِى كُنتُمۡ تُوعَدُونَ (٦٣) ٱصۡلَوۡهَا ٱلۡيَوۡمَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ (٦٤) ٱلۡيَوۡمَ نَخۡتِمُ عَلَىٰٓ أَفۡوَٲهِهِمۡ وَتُكَلِّمُنَآ أَيۡدِيہِمۡ وَتَشۡہَدُ أَرۡجُلُهُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ (٦٥)

Indeed! those who merit paradise this day are happily employed, (55) They and their wives, in pleasant shade, on thrones reclining; (56) Theirs the fruit (of their good deeds) and theirs (all) that they ask; (57) The word from a Merciful Lord (for them) is: Peace! (58) But avaunt you, O you guilty, this day! (59) Did I not charge you, O you sons of Adam, that you worship not the devil –

Indeed! he is your open foe! – (60) But that you worship Me? That was the right path. (61) Yet he hath led astray of you a great multitude. Had you then no sense? (62) This is hell which you were promised (if you followed him). (63) Burn therein this day for that you disbelieved. (64) This day We seal up their mouths, and their hands speak out to Us and their feet bear witness as to what they used to earn. (65)

4. Good & evil,  right & wrong, reward & punishment,

God states in the Quran, “Whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, while he/she is true believer, to him/her We will give  a good life (in this world) with respect, and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do” 16.97

Prophet Muhammed (Sas) said, “God does not deal unjustly with a believer about a good deed because he is given blessings for it in the hereafter; but the disbeliever is given in this world the reward for his good deeds, he  has performed and when he comes to the hereafter, there is no good deed for which he can be rewarded,”(Muslim).

In many verses God has stated  His warning and His punishment for evil doers in this life and the life hereafter. In some verses He states the punishment for the next life, as those punishment is much severe and  is a place of permanence. When the punishment of this world is stated, they are secondary  compared to the punishment of next life.

5. Mankind purpose of life, birth, death, destiny and final destination

The question comes to  human mind: Where did we come from?Where are we going? Why we are here? What is the purpose of  life?

As muslims, our purpose of life is to worship one true God by submitting to Him and live in this world following the path shown by the prophet Muhammad (Sas) to be happy and successful in this life and life hereafter.

One of the central themes of the Quran is mankind, his origin, purpose of life, birth, death, destiny and final destination, and facing the Al-mighty God on the day of Judgement.

God himself directly address man kind in the Quran. Here will focus on few verses with the context as God addresses his best creation.

God Created Mankind into Nations and Tribes to know each other but most honorable in the sight of God is the most righteous one.

يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقۡنَـٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ۬ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلۡنَـٰكُمۡ شُعُوبً۬ا وَقَبَآٮِٕلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓاْ‌ۚ إِنَّ أَڪۡرَمَكُمۡ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتۡقَٮٰكُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ۬ (١٣) سُوۡرَةُ الحُجرَات t

O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other. Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of God is who is the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (49.13)

God Created all human being from Adam & Eve:  Be God conscious to establish & maintain kinship.

  • يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ وَخَلَقَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنۡہُمَا رِجَالاً۬ كَثِيرً۬ا وَنِسَآءً۬‌ۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى تَسَآءَلُونَ بِهِۦ وَٱلۡأَرۡحَامَ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ رَقِيبً۬ا (١) سُوۡرَةُ النِّسَاء

O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord, Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from the two had spread abroad a multitude of men and women. Be careful of your duty toward God in Whom you claim (your rights) of one another, and toward the wombs (that bare you).Indeed! God has been a watcher over you. (4. 1)

6. 25 prophets sent to past tribes and nations.

God communicated with mankind through a group of special, selected human beings, the prophets. The prophets received revelations through angel Gabriel (AHS) and delivered to humanity for their guidance, peace and ultimate salvation. The Quran describes stores of 25 prophets and the message has been identical for all mankind from prophet Adam (AHS) until last prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Hence in the Quran we find the familiar stories of Moses (AHS), Jesus (AHS), Abraham (AHS), and Noah (AHS) as observed in the Jewish Tourah and Christian Injil.

God raised prophets  as bearer of good news and as warner’s. A messenger of God  is human being to whom God gives His guidance and whom he assigns the task of conveying that guidance to the human being, so they may do good deeds and avoid evil deeds.

According to Islam, God sent prophets to all nations on earth, at various stages of their histories. Muslims believe in all prophets sent by God and do not make distinction. God descries on 25 prophets in the Quran and many are not stated to us.

Information about the different prophets sent by God to humankind, but 25 of them can be found throughout the 114 chapters of Quran. The information is presented in a variety of ways. From a few short verses, to the long narrative concerning Prophet Joseph, that takes an entire chapter.

Additionally, almost invariably, the prophets come to their particular people with the same message. They ordered their peoples to worship God alone, and not associate anything or anyone in worship with Him. The stories of the prophets emphasize this basic doctrine of Islam that God is One.

First Man and Propeht is Adma andHis wife Hawa is considered the mother of mankind. God created Adam(Ahs) from a handful of soil containing portions from different varieties on earth. God honored the first human , Adam in countless ways. He blew his soul into him. He fashioned him in His own hands and ordered the angels to bow down before him.

In spite of all things in heaven, Adam was feeling lonely. One morning Adam awoke up to find a woman gazing at him, Hawa, as his mate to provide him love and tranquility.

7. Laws of Islamic rituals and code of morality & ethics.

Halal, Haram, Fasting, Zakah, Hajj and believing in one God

 

Justice, and truthfulness are always  praised but falsehood, injustice and dishonesty are always condemned. Sympathy, compassion and generosity are valued while selfishness, cruelty and bigotry are not supported by society.

 

Honest, sincere, reliable and trustworthy individuals, who live in peace and let others live in peace are basis of healthy human society. These persons have peace and happiness and successful in this world and in life hereafter.

Commanding to do good and forbidding the evil, as in the Quran and sunanh, is one of the most important principle of Islam.  The muslim ummah can  fight off various social, moral and spiritual ills and maintain  a healthy and dynamic life by commanding  good and forbidding evils.

 

The Quran says, “ God does command you justice,  and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk and forbids  lewdness and abomination and wickedness. (16.90)”

 

Quran also states the mission of prophet muhammed (SAs), : He commands them what is right and forbids them what is wrong, he makes lawful  for them all  good things  and prohibit for them only the foul; and lifts them from their burdens and the yokes that were upon them. (7.157).

 

God says, “ When My servants ask you ( O Muhammed) about Me, then surely I am near. I answer the prayers of the supplicants when they call Me. So let them hear My Call and let them trust me, in order that, they may be led to right path.” 2.186.

 

Dua or prayer or supplication means  calling out God, conversation with our creator. Prophet Muhammed (SAs) said, “ The supplication of every one of you will be granted if he/she do not get impatient and say, I supplicated my Lord but my prayer has not been granted’, [Bukhri and Muslim]

 

سُوۡرَةُ الفَاتِحَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ (١)

ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (٢) ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ (٣) مَـٰلِكِ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ (٤) إِيَّاكَ نَعۡبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسۡتَعِينُ (٥)ٱهۡدِنَا ٱلصِّرَٲطَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ (٦) صِرَٲطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ غَيۡرِ ٱلۡمَغۡضُوبِ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا ٱلضَّآلِّينَ (٧)
Surah Al-Fatiha
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (1)

All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord [] of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists). (2) The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful (3) The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) (4) You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). (5) Guide us to the Straight Way. (6) The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians). (7)

 

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