Earth as Bed & Sky as Protected Roof, Engeer Mir Akter Hussain, Toronto
A bed is such an infrastructure which provides enormous comforts with minimum effort or without any effort for a long time period in 24 hours day-night cycle for any human being. When Earth is considered as a bed, then its dimensions are to be taken from centre of Earth to its surface (6371 Km) & Longitude-Latitude wise along Earth-Crust. Earth itself is spherical in shape & it has got layers named by Inner Core 1220 Km/760 miles thick composed of Iron & Nickel in solid state, then Outer core is 2300 Km/ 1400 miles thick, which is composed of Iron & Nickel but in liquid state. Then mantle is Silicate rocky shell rich in magnesium & Iron, a viscous fluid in nature , which is 2886 Km/1703 miles thick. Then crust is solid which is 8 km thick under Ocean & 32 Km thick under Continent. Continental crust is made of granite but Oceanic crust is made of volcanic lava named by Basalt. Each layers has got separate function & exact required dimensions ,which is essential for comfortable living of Human beings & other living creatures. Mass of Sun , Earth , Moon etc, distances between them & other parameters has been chosen precisely to provide definite services for the inhabitants of Earth.
Function of Inner Core – it is a solid ball having 1220 Km radius made of iron nickel, which behaves as a permanent magnet & it has got contribution to fabricate magnetic field in outer space which prevents direct flow of harmful charge particles towards Earth , which causes safety from Solar ejection for living creatures .
Function of Outer Core : This layer is 2300 Km thick, which is made of iron & Nickel but in liquid state which results movement of liquid outward & it recycles again & again .The flow of liquid consist of charged particles in Outer Core behaves like current carrying conductors which is induced from voltage generated by cutting of magnetic flux at very high rate originated from inner core. The above flow of liquid causes convection flow of heat towards Earth surface as temperature at centre of Earth is 7300 Kelvin & pressure is 3.3 million to 3.6 million atm. The liquid layer or outer Core is moving in opposite direction with respect to Inner core & all the other layers . The outer core behaves as Electro Magnet which contributes to make the magnetic field more stronger in outer space created by Inner core . There is additional advantage of movement of outer core in opposite direction instead of moving in same direction with respect to inner core as it creates very high relative velocity in between the two core which contribute to make magnetic field further more stronger in outer space.
Function of Mantle : Mantle is a fluid having high viscosity & it’s very long thickness like 2886 Km which prevents enormous flow of heat at high rate by conduction & convection so that required temperature level suitable for living creatures can be maintained at Earth surface. Also it behaves as an interface in between two solid spherical shell rotating at two different speed , like Earth surface & Earth’s inner Core at centre. The density, surface tension of mantle are designed in such a way so that Continental crust, Oceanic Crust having enormous load can float on it perfectly or in exact proportion means a suitable portion above surface & other portion sink in mantle . Also behaviour of fluid is such that gravitation pull of Sun on Earth does not affect the spinning of Earth on its axis means unexpected accumulation of huge mantle in that portion of Earth which faces Sun is prevented, that would have been influence the duration of day and night.
Function of Oceanic Crust : Earth Crust is 8 Km thick under Ocean which is made of volcanic lava or Basalt. The continental Crust is 32 Km thick and made of Granite. Although Continental crust is more thick than that of Oceanic Crust, but crust under Ocean is more heavier than Continental crust which causes from larger area of Ocean floor than that of Continental land mass & most probably total quantity of mass of mountains & volcanoes exist in Ocean area is more than the total quantity of mass of mountains located on Continental area etc. This factor creates a condition of lower level of Ocean floor than the level of Continental floor due to its more heavy weight , which results Oceanic crust to push towards more depth in mantle than that of Continental crust. The above situation transform the Ocean area into a perfect basin to store enormous quantity of water in it after washing the Continental land mass by rain water drained through rivers & surface of level or un level ground. The Ocean floor is made of basalt but not from granite to prevent probably, any water leak through the floor which may causes from 600 atm pressure at the bottom of Ocean Basin . Also Ocean floor is designed in such a way so that heat from centre of Earth is not allowed to pass through it which may cause vaporization or loss of all the water from the basin. There are Trenches like Mariana Trench (Length 2550 km, Width 69 km &depth 10.99km) which has been located in Pacific Ocean beside eastern side of Japan, Philippines etc & the absences of this type of trenches in Ocean floor would have been raise water level in such a way that it could sink vast area of Continental land under water. Also most probably major volcanoes (A vent or hole through which gaseous, liquid & solid material are ejected outside Earth surface from interior of Earth to reduce pressure inside when it cross the safe limit) or Giant volcanoes (Largest volcano Like Tamu Massif volcano located on eastern side of Japan in Pacific Ocean) has been placed in ocean area , so that ejected smoke, dust, gases are absorbed by Ocean water to prevent the pollution of atmosphere & to provide safety for inhabitants of Continental land.
Function of Continental Crust
Continental Crust is 32 Km thick which maintains comfortable temperature for living creatures located on Earth surface. If the thickness is more it will be to cold & if it is less then it will be to much hot for the inhabitant. Also soil composition, the characteristics of different layers under crust, contour of surface, parameters related to environment & infrastructure are chosen accurately, so that it can support grass land, wood land, desert, ice land, swamp, lake, river, table land, hilly area, mountain etc in different parts of continents for comfortable living of inhabitant of Earth. A considerable portion of Continental Crust has been levelled uniformly or made flat instead of varying slope with an objective for easy or comfortable movement of living creatures . Continental crust is made from granite which contain silicon so that rain water can pass through several layers very easily. During the above process it is filtered & is deposited at certain depth under surface which is suitable for drinking .
Behaviour of Sky as Protected roof
Roof creates a situation to provide safety from external hazard . So if the sky is considered as protected roof then its dimension should be taken from lowest level of atmosphere along with all other layers , outer space , all the planets of Solar System & most probably celestial objects located outside the Solar System which is beyond the present available knowledge. All the layers of atmosphere together behaves like blanket over Earth surface which does not allow the temperature to rise above the upper limit during day time & also oppose the drop down of temperature below the lower limit in night time which may causes from appear& disappear of radiation from Sun.
Each layer, level or infrastructure surrounding Earth surface has got different functions to provide safety & other services for living creatures according to following description.
The seven zones or infrastructure surrounding Earth are named by Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere, Ionosphere and Magnetosphere.
Troposphere is the first layer or zone where rain, thunderstorm etc activities occurs related to weather. Nitrogen produce nitrate by mixing with rain water in presence of thunderstorm here which is essential to form protein the body of pants & animals . CO₂ released by Human , Animal etc that is absorbed by plants to produce oxygen, without which the living creatures can not survive even few minutes . Boundary of this zone is 10 Km above Earth surface & temperature rises with height.
Stratosphere – This layer starts from 10Km above Earth surface & extended up to 50 Km & temperature increases with height in this layer. Ozone layer exist here which prevents most of the harmful Ultra Violate radiation from Sun to reach Earth surface. Aeroplanes are flying in this zone.
Mesosphere : This layer exist in between 50Km to 85 Km where meteor is burnt & temperature decreases with height. During passing through this layer size of celestial object is reduced by a combination of burning & breaking it into small pieces. The above process transform the meteor into the form of dust some times. In the absence of this layer, the meteor would have been strike the living creature direct which would have been cause severe damage for them & their surroundings. Another advantage of this layer is the dust supplied from this zone after descending more, when meat with water vapour in troposphere, then it is condensed to liquid water drop. This water drop in the presence of lightning discharge mix with nitrogen & produced nitrogen per oxide solution which drop down as rain water. The nitrogen dissolved in rain water is absorbed by plant’s root which is essential to compose the body of plants & Animal.
Thermosphere : This layer starts 85 Km above Earth surface & temperature of this layer reaches up to 1500⁰ C. Aurora originate here & space Shuttle orbit here. The temperature of atmosphere is regulated by this layer. X Ray & a portion of UV rays are filtered here.
Exosphere is the upper layer of atmosphere, where atoms & Molecules escape into the outer space. A portion of UV rays are scattered by Hydrogen atoms to protect the lower layers from damage.
Ionosphere : This layer reflect radio wave & is used for telecommunication.
Magnetosphere : Magnetosphere is above ionosphere where behaviour of charge particles ejected from Sun is controlled by combined effect of Electromagnet (Outer liquid core) & permanent magnet (Inner solid core). Here charged particles ejected by Solar storm is deflected to prevent the damage of layers of atmosphere which stop the appearance of harmful radiation for inhabitant of Earth.
The following verse of Holy Quran mentioned that there is seven infrastructure on the top of inhabitant of Earth.
Sura Naba 78/12 We have built over you seven ( Arabic-Shaba) firmaments ( Arabic- Sidada )
Most probably the seven division has been made in above verse according to the services or benefits provided by above infrastructures but not on the basis of temperature or density in which situation the number of division will be five but not seven.
The following verses of Holy Quran which describe “ Earth as bed & Sky as roof” & some other verses related to above analysis are mentioned here.
Sura Baqara 2/22 Who made Earth as bed (Arabic –Firasha), and sky (Sky-Shama-a ) , as roof (canopy) & it is He, Who send down rain from above for the growth of every kind of food for your sustenance (Arabic-Rijkallakum) .Sura Naba 78/6 Have we not spread the Earth like a bed? Sura Anbiya 21/32 We have made sky (Arabic-Shama-a) protected (Mahfujan), roof (Arabic-Shakfan),still they turn away from our Sign.Sura Jariat 51/22- In nearest Sky (Arabic – Shama-e) is your sustenance (Arabic-Rijkukum) & also that which you are promised.(Shama-e is nearest sky which is Troposphere ,sura 30/24 Shama-e where rain occurs, but “Shama-a” is sky at very long distance ,sura 2/22,21/32 & Shamawati is” Heavenly Body” consist of spherical shells composed of solid , liquid, gas all together or any one or combination of any two –(Shamawati is without pillar in Sura 13/2), (24/45 & 42/29 is to be consider together ).