Any device or object which is involved in a process of producing continuous uniform periodic events that can be used as a clock to count time .The event of spinning of Earth on its axis is used to measure shortest time period, means 24 Hours day & night. The Uniform rate of rotation of Moon in its orbit is used to measure a bit longer time period like a month which is 30 days & that is composed of 12 months in a year. Rotation of Earth in its orbit is one year or 365 days, which is longer time period that is used to count several years. The above description indicates that the device or object which is used to count time should be changed , for the measurement of  very long time period .

Another factor that influence to select the object or device for counting time is the accuracy in the  measurement of  time. The object involves in periodic motion cannot maintain uniform rate of periodic change some times due to interference of some factors from its surrounding or influence of some component, which causes  from its internal  composition. For example the volume of Earth at the time of creation or separation from its celestial mother enormous massive objects was extremely large, which has been  reduced to smaller size continuously by its self- gravitational attraction towards its centre. Also heat has been ejected to its surrounding continuously as it cooled down in subsequent time. This  situation resulted further change in  its volume. All these factors together has got contribution to change the rate of spin on its axis which disqualify Earth  to select it for counting time for the measurement of extremely long  time period like Millions or Billions of years.

Inaccuracy  in measurement of time involves if time is measured by counting the  rotation of Earth in its orbit also, means to count  by number of Years when length of time period is Millions or Billions of years. Earth’s rotation in its orbit is influenced by gravitational attraction of its twin sister planet Venus, & gravitational pull of massive Giant planet Jupiter (its mass is 318 times larger than Earth) ,which is caused from the closeness of Venus & Jupiter  to Earth & it happened in every 100,000 years. The gravitational attraction of above two mentioned planets on Earth changes slightly the length of major & minor axis of elliptic orbit of Earth . This situation causes the change of rotational time period of Earth in its orbit around Sun , as the total length of Earth’s  orbit is changed for certain time. So counting of years by counting rotation of Earth in its orbit may lead to inaccuracy in time measurement in case of long time period like more than Millions of years.

Also periodic rotation of any solid Heavenly body  in its orbit or its spinning  on its axis cannot be used for accurate time measurement until there is very strong definite  reason behind it, as the time period of rotation in its orbit & rate of spin on its axis both can be changed due to striking by very large stones, meteors, comets etc having very high momentum. Time period of rotation in its orbit & rate of spin on its axis  sometimes  can be influenced by gravitational attraction of other massive Heavenly body. For example spinning rate of Mercury & Venus on their axis is very slow due to their  internal  composition & closeness to massive celestial object like Sun.

The uniform periodic event like rotation of Sun in its orbit is the next option to count very long time period like Millions or Billions of years. The orbit of Sun is not influenced by the gravitation attraction of neighbouring Heavenly body, as the nearest Star named by Proxima Centaury is located at a distance of 24.89 Trillion miles from Sun. The spinning of sun on its axis does not qualify to count accurate time as Sun is composed of a sphere of Hydrogen & Helium gas having enormous Mass (Sun’s Mass is 33,000XEarth’s Mass) , which can face contraction of its volume due to its self-gravitational attraction towards its centre, outward thermodynamic force that developed from enormous production of heat there  & some  other factors. This situation may result changes  in rate of  spin on its axis which may lead to change in  rotational time period on its axis.

There is some indications  to count time by rotation of Sun in its orbit which are available in following verses of Holy Quran or Last Holy Book.

Sura Eunus 10/5 It is He, Who made the Sun(Shamsha), radiate (Arabic DIea) a brilliant light , and the Moon (Qamara) lighted (Arabic- Nuran), and ordained for it stages so that you may learn to count out number (Arabic-Adada) of years(Arabic-Shinina) and reckoning (Hishaba) of time.  (Sura 6/96)

Sura Rahman 55/5 The Sun and the Moon moves according to fixed reckoning (Hishaban)

The above sentence  in 10/5 indicates that Sun can be used for counting years. Normally number of years is counted by number of rotation of Earth in its orbit . So by mentioning number of years (Shinina), it has been advised to use the system of counting time by rotation of Sun in its orbit. Also rotation of Moon in its orbit can be used for the measurement of time according to above verse.

In verse 55/5 it has been mentioned that the course of Sun & Moon is fixed means counting time by the rotation of the above two Heavenly bodies in their orbit is more accurate than other.

The construction or fabrication time period of Heavenly bodies & Earth is a very remarkable example of very long time period measurement in the history of Universe. The Heavenly bodies & Earth were created in Six time periods, which has been mentioned In the following verses of Last Holy Book.

Sura Qaf 50/38 We created the Heavenly bodies (Shamawati) & Earth and everything between them in six periods, nor were we ever wearied.  (Sura 57/4, Sura 11/7,Sura 50/38, Sura 32/4, Sura 10/3, Sura 7/54

The statement related to six construction periods in Holy Bible

Exodus 20/11 For in six days, the LORD made the heavens ,and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, but he rested on seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

Some more verses related to six construction periods in Holy Quran

Sura Ha Mim Sajda  41/9 What do you indeed deny Him Who created Earth (Arabic-Artha) in two time  periods (Arabic-Yaomin) & do you set up equals with Him ? He is the LORD of Universe.

Sura 41/10 He placed firm mountains on Earth, and blessed it. He measured out its means of sustenance all in four time  periods,(Arba ati ai eamin) this is for those who ask for it.

Sura 41/9 describes that Earth  composed of  solid , liquid & gaseous layers along with other zones  that provide services for living creatures  was created in two time  periods. Sura 41/10 describes that sustenance or food means plants & animals were created in next four time  periods.

In above verse of  Sura 50/38 translation of “shamawati” has been done as “Heavens” only which is not appropriate & does not make any sense.. The appropriate translation of  “Shamawati” is Heavenly bodies according to verse in Sura Rad 13/2  describes that “GOD has raised the Heavenly bodies “Shamawati” without pillar” which means it is  mostly solid with a combination of may be gaseous &  liquid layer also. Also another verse in Sura Shura 42/29 describes  that living creatures (Arabic-Dabbatin) are crawling, walking on two legs &four legs & those are located  on these  “Shamawati.(Definition of Dabbatin in  Sura Nur 24/45)

Similarly six time periods  (Arabic “Sita Yom”) for  creation of Heavenly bodies (Arabic-“Shamawati”) & Earth  has been mentioned in above six  verses of above six different Sura means six times in Last Holy Book. Many  sura appeared to Last prophet (Who was unlettered)  at the difference of several years but not together or not very frequently which is surprise &  amazing.

Most of the translator has translated “ Sitta Yom” as six days in which six for “sittta” is correct but day for “”yom” is not correct. In fact “yom” is not 24 hours day, but a variable time period according to following verses of Last Holy Book.

Sura Haj 22/47 They ask you  to hasten the punishment. GOD will never go back on His promise. A day (Arabic-Yaoman) with your LORD is like a thousand years  (Arabic-Alfi  Shanatin) in your reckoning.

Sura Ma arij 70/4 By which the Angels  & Spirit will ascend to Him in one day (Arabic-Yaomin), which will Last for fifty thousand years (Arabic -Khamshin alfa Shanatin).

Sura Sajda 32/5 He directs all affairs from sky (Shama e) to Earth. Then all will ascend to Him on a Day (Arabic-yaomin)whose length is a thousand years (Arabic-Alfa Shanatin) by the way you measure.

So it is clear from above three verses that “Yom” can be thousand years, may be fifty thousand years or more or less. 24 Hours day has been mentioned by the term “Laila wa Nahara”  according to following verses, like Sura 17/12, Sura 3/190, Sura 10/6 where “Laila” for night & “nahara” for day has been used.

It has been suggested to count time by rotation of Sun & Moon in their orbit in Sura 10/5.But Moon does not qualify to count time during the construction period of Heavenly bodies & Earth according to the following verse of Last Holy Book.

Sura Towba 9/36 On the Day GOD created Heavenly bodies  & Earth, He decreed that the number of months should be twelve in number.

The above verse indicates that GOD decreed twelve months at the end of construction of Heavenly bodies  & Earth but not at the  beginning.  So it can be assumed that  rotation of Moon was not uniform  during above construction period. As a result of this situation , rotation of Sun in its orbit is to be consider to count time during construction period  due to its fixed course or uniform periodic motion mentioned in Sura 55/5 . Heavenly bodies & Earth were created during the time period of six rotation of Sun in its orbit according to above description & verse in 50/38 which has been repeated in other five Sura. Or more clearly the conclusion can be drawn that creation, evolution of solid layers of Earth,  hydrosphere,  its atmosphere & its other essential zones that exist  in outer space happened  during two rotations & creation , evolution  of plants , animals occurred  during four rotations  of Sun in its orbit.

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