Mountain is the source of permanent river, if its height is more than lower limit which is required to form ice in winter & maximum height is less than upper limit so that ice can melt in summer. In addition to above conditions some form of natural basin which is to be located in between top of mountain & ground level for preserving water to provide continuous supply , location of ocean from mountain within reasonable distance etc, are essential components to form permanent river, that originate from mountain.
East West Orientation of Mountain chain blocks flow of cold air from polar region
Himalaya Mountain blocks cold air flow from arctic region towards India, which prevents temperature to go down otherwise the subcontinent would have been severe cold. Similarly location of mountains in Scandinavian countries prevent flow of cold air from arctic region towards Europe which results Western Europe becomes less cold than that of Eastern Europe. There is no East West oriented mountain chain in between Canada and North pole, which results Canadian climate more cold than many parts of Europe.
North South Orientation of Mountain chain influence duration of day & night
On the western side of Canada & US there is North South Oriented 4800 Km long Rocky Mountains Chain ( At Western side of Canada-US & Eastern Coast of Pacific Ocean) & on Western side of South America North South Oriented 7000 Km long Andes Mountains Chain exist. Earth is spinning on its axis from west to East so if there is wind flow from East to West or West to East then these mountains chain will create obstacle for the flow of air which will influence spinning rate of Earth on its axis & finally it may causes change in duration of day & night . This will happen as Earth is composed of solid layer at center or inner core, then a liquid layer of outer core, then semi liquid Mantle, probably with more solid layers, Earth Crust & gaseous layers of atmosphere. All these layers are not spinning at same angular velocity. So if velocity of any one layer is changed then it will results change of velocity in other layer to compensate, as the total angular momentum of a rotating spherical object having solid, liquid & gaseous layers together is constant or conserved according to Newton’s law of conservation of angular momentum.
The spinning rate of Earth on its axis is effected by wind specially near mountain which has been confirmed by the Scientist of Nasa named by the article “Changes in the Earth rotation in the wind” in internet, web site, www.nasa.gov, March 4, 2003
Mountains provide some form of safety from celestial strike for living creatures
Most of the mountains & volcanoes are located in ocean. So the total gravitation pull due to all the mountains & Volcanoes located in oceans attract any celestial object approaching towards Earth from outer space to strike it on water which prevents striking on land. Also eruptions from most of
volcanoes located in oceans is absorbed by surface water which prevents flow of hot lava, smoke ,dust etc towards land along with a reduction of extremely high pressure developed at centre of Earth & finally it provides safety for all living creatures.
Mountains prevent oscillation of axis of Earth
Total Mass of Northern Hemi sphere is more than the total Mass of southern Hemi sphere due to the presence of most of the mountains having higher height are located in Northern Hemisphere . This situation causes Gravitation pull due to Sun more stronger on North Hemisphere than South Hemisphere & finally it prevents oscillation of spinning axis of Earth. This results routine change of seasons periodically at schedule times.
The shaking of Earth axis is prevented by proper distribution of Mountains on Earth has been mentioned in following verses of Holy Quran.
Sura Nahal 16/15 He has set up on the Earth firm Mountains, lest in shake under you and rivers and tracks so that you may find your way. (Sura Anbia, 21/31, Sura Luqman, 31/10)
Mountain’s long root underground prevent Earth from Explossion
Holy Quran about Mountain root
Sura Naba 78/7 And mountains as pegs, Sura 88/19 And at mountains , how these have been erected ?
Mountains has got deep root under the surface of Earth and these roots can be several times longer than that of the height of the mountains above the surface of the ground. This situation is analogous to the behavior of peg or nail. For example more than 90 % length of peg or nail is inserted under the surface of ground/wall, which allows it to carry the tension or load/binding force. Major portion of length of mountain exist under the surface of Earth, which has been indicated in the above verse of Last Holy Book by comparing it with peg or nail. The above characteristic of longer root of mountain has been discovered in this century only but not 1400 years before at the time of Revelation of Holy Quran . For example, height of mount Everest is 9 Km above the surface of Earth but it has got root, 125 Km long under the ground.
Highest mountain in this Solar System is in Mars, named by “Olympus Mons” having a height of 22 Km, 2nd highest is Maxwell Montes with a height of 11 Km, which is located on Venus & 3rd highest is Everest mount of Himalayas having height 9 km , that exist on Earth. The proper function of mountain on Mars & Venus is yet not understood & most probably it will be clear by future development of scientific knowledge . Mountain root prevent the explosion of solid planet may be one of the possible reasons which is essential for safety of human life on Earth as the above two planets are very close & nearest neighbors of Earth. One probable example is the existence of asteroid belt in between Mars & Jupiter that may appeared due to explosion of solid planet in the past.
Sura 82/2 When planet’s (Planets-Arabic-Kaokabi is used in verse but Star-Arabic- Najam is not used ) pieces are scattered due to explosion. Sura 99/2-When Earth throw its burden – before the End of World , Sura 89/21 When the Earth is crushed & ground to dust. Sura 19/90
PROFIT FROM LONG MOUNTAIN ROOT.
Long mountain root under earth surface acts like a nail which hold several gaseous, liquid, solid layers together to prevent any relative displacement in between the layers. This situation may appears due to resultant of self gravitation force originates from Earth’s Mass & centripetal force developed by axial spin of Earth, which causes different angular velocity of different layers as these layers are formed by heavier to lighter molecules located at different distance from its centre . So longer root of mountains , like peg / nail, prevent any relative displacement, in between the layers of Earth. This condition is very essential to provide a clear passage/hole/vent for volcanic discharge which prevent explosion / burst of earth crust or outermost shell to save Human being’s life as huge outward pressure developed from combined effect of outward centripetal force from different angular velocity of different layers & outward thermodynamic force originate from 6000⁰ C Temperature & 1.3 million Atmospheric pressure at its centre. (Means pressure at centre 1.3 Million times more than the air pressure at surface of Earth)
There is a definite reason or purpose for every creation which has been mentioned in following verse of last Holy Book & comfortable existence of Human being depends on GOD’s uncountable Favors / Blessings, which has been mentioned in the following verses.
Sura Hijar 15/85 we have created Heavenly bodies (Shamawati) & earth & all that is between the two in according with the requirements of necessity/truth & wisdom.
Sura (Nahal) 16/18 If you tried to count GOD’s blessings/favors (Niamata), you would never be able to number them. GOD is ever forgiving & merciful. 16/19 GOD knows all that you conceal & all that you reveal.