Quran Themes with Examples from the Chapter the Sun, Dr. Emdad Khan
The Quran means recitation, a book which is recited, memorized and put into practice as the life guide by millions and millions, in the past, present and in future, all over the world. The Quran is also known as Al-Furqan, criterion to determine what Right & Wrong is, and separate Truth & Falsehood.
The Quran, revealed from the Al-Mighty God, through angel Gabriel (Jibril – AHS), during 23 long years to the unlettered prophet Muhammad (PBUH), at the age 40 until he died at the age 63. The first 5 verses of the Quran starting with the word Read (Iqra) was revealed in Ramadan, on 22 December 609 AD, when Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was mediating in the cave Hira, near the holy city, Makkah, in Saudi Arabia.
The Quran, challenges mankind to produce something similar to the Quran in five different verses. “And if you are in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a chapter of the like thereof, and call your witness beside God if you are truthful. (Al-Quran, 2.23)
The Quran contains 114 chapters; divided as Makkan or Medinan based on, revelation before or after the migration of prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to Medina. Each chapter derives its title from a name or word or quality discussed in the chapter. The chapters are arranged approximately in order of decreasing size but not connected to the order of revelation. Each chapter except the ninth chapter, Al-Taubah, starts with the Bismillah Hir Rahmaneer Rahim.
The Quran was revealed as a dialogue in spoken language in classic Arabic.
To understand the Quran, scholars has generated a Quranic science, known as Tafsir;
The Quran contains roughly 6,300 verses. According to scholars, only 500 verses describe the Islamic laws such as Salah, Zakah, Fasting, Halal, Haram, ethics, morality, justice, etc. The remaining 5,800 verses rotate on six major themes. God is the author of the Quran, spoken in classic Arabic and He directly address the human being, to obey him and be away from the open enemy, the devil.
The central seven themes of the Quran are (a) the existence, believe and introduction of the oneness of the unique God , and his power and His signs, (b) the life after death and the day of judgement (c) final destination of heaven or hell fire, (d) good & evil, right & wrong, reward & punishment, ethics & justice (e) mankind, his origin, purpose of life, birth, death, and destiny (e) stories of 25 prophets sent to past tribes and nations as guidance to follow the right path. (7) laws of Islamic rituals and code of morality ethics, and justice.
Let us now analyze a short chapter 91, the Sun (Al-shams) with only 15 short verses. Like all other chapter, it starts with the seal, Bismillah Hir Rahmaneer Rahim, meaning in the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
In the first six verses, it talks about six important creations as power and signs of God, the Sun, the Moon, the Day, the Night, the Sky and the Earth. The verses are short and all ends in a rhythm Ha and has preposition Iza means When or Ma, meaning who or what and joins all the verses with Wa meaning and. This unique composition is beyond the imagination of unlettered prophet Muhammed (PBUG), even contemporary or earlier Arab poets tried to imitate and miserably failed in style, form and meaning.
In an amazing way in the seventh to tenth, the four verses, God addresses, mankind and states how He created the human soul and showed him, the path of piety and evil. Every human being is given the capacity, will and power to do good things or bad things. He clearly states the glad tiding of success in this life and in the eternal life who purifies his/her soul by doing good things in life and society. In the same way, He warned for a failure in this life and in the life hereafter to those who corrupt the soul by doing bad things in his/her life and society.
Finally, God, in the last five verses, from eleven to fifteen, briefly describes the story of Prophet Saleh (PBUH) who came in the tribe Thamud in Arabia. As requested by the tribe, he, with the permission of God, by miracle to prove he is a genuine messenger of God, brought a large she camel, from the mountain, who used to drink a lot of water. Only few believed in the miracle but most of them rejected the prophet. The tribe planned, mocked prophet Saleh (PBUH) and killed the she camel, not listening repeated warning of the prophet. God, within a short time span, sent a torment and destroyed the whole tribe and even no traces left, the whole land became flat. Till today, the land of the tribe Thamud in present day Saudi Arabia is barren, as a curse of God and as a reminder to mankind, the destiny of evil doers.
———————–Chapter 91, the Sun in Arabic with English Translation—————-
وَٱلشَّمۡسِ وَضُحَٮٰهَا (١) I swear by the sun and his broad light, (1)
وَٱلۡقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَٮٰهَا (٢) And by the moon when she follows him, (2)
وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا جَلَّٮٰهَا (٣) And by the day when it shows his brightness, (3)
وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَٮٰهَا (٤)
And by the night when it envelops him, (4)
وَٱلسَّمَآءِ وَمَا بَنَٮٰهَا (٥)
And by the sky, and the One who built it, (5)
وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا طَحَٮٰهَا (٦)
And by the earth, and the One who spread it, (6)
وَنَفۡسٍ۬ وَمَا سَوَّٮٰهَا (٧) And by the soul, and the One who made it well, (7)
فَأَلۡهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقۡوَٮٰهَا (٨)
Then He showed him what is wrong for him and what is right for him; (8)
قَدۡ أَفۡلَحَ مَن زَكَّٮٰهَا (٩) Success is really attained by him who purifies it, (9)
وَقَدۡ خَابَ مَن دَسَّٮٰهَا (١٠) And failure is really suffered by him who pollutes it. (10)
كَذَّبَتۡ ثَمُودُ بِطَغۡوَٮٰهَآ (١١) The People of Thamud denied the truth because of their transgression (11)
إِذِ ٱنۢبَعَثَ أَشۡقَٮٰهَا (١٢) When the wicked man among them went forth (to kill the she-camel)
فَقَالَ لَهُمۡ رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ نَاقَةَ ٱللَّهِ وَسُقۡيَـٰهَا (١٣) So, the Messenger of Allah said to them, “Be careful of Allah’s she-camel and her right to drink.” (13)
فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَعَقَرُوهَا فَدَمۡدَمَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ رَبُّهُم بِذَنۢبِهِمۡ فَسَوَّٮٰهَا (١٤) But they rejected him and killed her, so their Lord sent eradicating torment upon them because of their sin, and made it equal for all. (14)
وَلَا يَخَافُ عُقۡبَـٰهَا (١٥)
And He has no fear of its consequence. (15)