Infrastructure of Ocean & topography of ocean floor, Engineer Mir Akter Hossain, Toronto
Earth crust can be divided by two main zones named by Continental crust & Oceanic crust. About 71 % of earth surface is covered by water & 29 % of it is land. Continental crust is 32 Km thick, having density 2.6 gm. / cm³ , is made of mainly granite & Oceanic crust is 8 Km thick , having density 3.0 gm. / cm³ , which is made of basalt .The ocean holds about 96 % of all earth’s water. The division of ocean water according to depth are known as abyssal zones. Each layer has its own characteristic feature of pressure ,temperature, salinity & biodiversity . From ocean surface to ocean’s deepest point in trench is about 11 Km. The pressure , salinity increases with depth followed by the decrease of amount of sunlight & temperature . From 0 to 200 m is sunlight zone, 200 m to 1000 m (1 Km) is twilight zone, 1 km to 4 Km is midnight zone, 4 Km to 6 Km is Abyssal zone, 6 Km to 11 Km is trench zone. Pressure at ocean floor, which is located at 6 Km depth is 600 atm & temperature is just above freezing point .
Ocean’s floor is not flat & it does not have a sandy beach . The Ocean floor consist of valleys, mountains, seamounts ,plateaus , ridges, volcanoes , hydrothermal vents, trenches etc. Sometimes crack appears in its floor .
The outer continental shelf starts as the water begins. This zone is shallow , Its slope is very small which does not include deep water. The width of continental shelf changes significantly depending on locality ranging from a few kilometers to hundreds kilometers . As the continental shelf is crossed, the ocean floor descends steeply. This sharp rate of descending section is known as continental slope. This indicates the border between continental crust made of granite & oceanic crust made of basalt .
Absence of sunlight at 6 km below ocean surface prevents the production of oxygen from CO₂ by the photosynthesis of plants, which makes survival very difficult for normal or common marine plants & animals at this level . Moreover the increase of pressure ( 1 to 600 atm at bottom ) with Ocean’s depth causes survival of invertebrate marine animals/living organism & marine plants without trunk or stem in the lower levels of ocean Also food at higher depth of ocean for common or normal marine creatures is not easily available for the same reason. Brine filled methane escape from , ocean floor cracks, provide energy for bacteria. .Minerals released from hydro thermal vents is processed by bacteria. Organism at this depth depend on sinking organic material to provide their own nourishment & act as a part of food chain to supply food to marine animals, those are existing in all the levels from bottom to very close to ocean surface also .
Temperature at the centre of Earth is 5400⁰ C , & pressure is 33 00 000 to 36 00 000 atm which is variable . Most of the volcanoes including the gigantic volcanoes has been placed in oceans by Al Mighty GOD which is one of His greatest favour for all human being. . These volcanoes has got very long vents up to ocean floor to release the material in the form of dust, solid, liquid, gas to reduce the pressure, when it crosses safe limit which prevents the enormous or large scale explosion of oceanic & continental crust of Earth. During the ejection, when the pressure is reduced in such a way that it attains to safe limit by throwing material outside the Earth crust, then flow of material in upward direction is stopped , which results blockage of transmission of enormous heat flow by convection method towards Ocean floor. Afterward the ejected liquid material becomes solid by the influence of freezing temperature at the bottom of ocean floor which causes seal of the vent at ejection point for certain time period & the above process repeats again & again after certain time interval. So these types of vents of the volcanoes behave like a safety valve of a pressurised boiler. If the volcanic eruption includes even a moderate ( Not enormous explosion) , it can throw very large size of stone which may originates from oceanic crust that may kill living organism by direct striking & it has been prevented due to the location of ejection point at Ocean floor where pressure is 600 atm downward. . The lava having very high temperature including dust, smoke, gas etc ejected from volcano is absorbed by water as it is located at bottom under the surface of Ocean having 600 atm downward pressure there . If these types of volcanoes would have been placed under Continental crust instead of oceanic crust, then ejected dust , gases ,smoke etc would have been form a layer in atmosphere in such a way , which could prevent sunlight to appear at earth surface. As a result of this situation production of oxygen from plants by photosynthesis process would have been reduced due to insufficient sunlight (Act as a catalyst) which could make breathing problem for all the human beings.
Verse of Holy Quran related to above analysis
Sura Nahal 16/18 If you would count up the favours of ALLAH, never you would be able to count them. ALLAH is ever forgiving and most merciful. (Sura 14/34)
Verse of Holy Quran related to hidden presence of Volcanoes in Ocean
Sura Al Takwir 81/6 And when the , seas are set on fire
Sura Al Infitar 82/3 When the Seas overflows
Sura Al Tur 52/6 And by the swelling sea .
Example of volcano , located in Ocean floor that belongs to Oceanic crust & Ocean composed of liquid iron & nickel ,which is 1400 miles thick from top to bottom having spherical shell & is known as liquid outer core of earth at a depth of 1800 miles under the Oceanic crust ,which most probably has been mentioned in following Hadith
“ No one should sail on Sea, except the one, who is going to perform haj or Umrah (Pilgrim) or who is fighting in ALLAH’s path, for under Sea there is fire and under fire there is sea “
Sunan Abu Dawud , Book 14, number 2483 (Ref : The Verse has been mentioned by a religious scholar “Shibly Zaman”
Explanation of “Under the Sea there is fire & under the fire there is sea”
Under the Oceanic crust (in Solid state ), there is upper mantle (in semiliquid state ) , then lower mantle (In semiliquid state ) having thickness of 1800 miles together , then liquid outer core made by ions of Iron & Nickel having thickness 1400 miles, then solid inner core (in Solid state) made of iron & nickel having thickness 800 miles. The solid inner core behaves as the permanent magnet, which creates permanent magnetic field , that has been observed in north & south pole of Earth.. So 1400 miles thick liquid outer core , that is rotating in opposite direction with respect to all the other layers of Earth, most probably has been mentioned in 2nd part of the verse as “Under the fire there is sea “ which is invisible ocean & 1st part of the above verse, is visible Ocean made by water. There is a flow of hot liquid iron & Nickel consist of charged particles / ions from the beginning of this layer towards the upper level in this liquid outer core, then it returns to lowest level , which results the circulation of liquid material that, originates from difference of pressure & temperature in between this two levels. The above circulation of liquid iron & Nickel is same like the circulation of water from bottom of Ocean floor towards the surface of Ocean. This flow of liquid iron & nickel consist of charged particles/ions in liquid outer core & its rotation in east- west or opposite direction with respect to inner core & all other spherical layers of Earth with very high velocity creates very strong electromagnet ,which influences the behaviour of Magnetosphere located just above ionosphere at the outermost boundary of atmosphere. This Ionosphere & Magnetosphere together prevent ionization of different downward layers of atmosphere consist of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Ozone gases etc .
Continental movement or land movement has been preferred over the movement through Ocean in the above hadith as the most of the active volcanoes (about 1500 volcanoes still today ) in the whole world has been placed under oceanic Crust but not under continental crust to release the enormous pressure which is 3300 000 to 3600 000 atm at the centre of Earth.
Functions of mountains in Ocean
Sea fish is an important source of minerals which is enriched with iron ,zinc, iodine, magnesium & potassium etc. These minerals are ejected in the form of liquid, gas etc through crack, hydrothermal vents or vents related to volcanic eruption located in ocean floor, which starts after, continental shelf , continental slope etc towards the centre of ocean means at a distance of several hundred Km from sea shore , where minimum depth of ocean from surface is about 3.5 Km. The bacteria converts minerals ejected from ocean floor to feed the plants as a part of food chain for the consumption of marine animal like fish & other marine living creatures . Sunlight ( act as a catalyst) is very essential for plant to produce oxygen from CO₂ & is very poor or absent after twilight zone means in midnight zone which is located at 1 km below the ocean surface. So mountains having height at least more than 2 Km is essential to support the plants at this level of ocean (In Sunlight zone, Twilight Zone etc.), which may supply food for marine animal such as fish & other marine living creatures for their survival at this levels. The marine fish as food & oil from marine fish (Like Cod, Salmon, mackerel etc.) in the form of capsule is consumed by human being to prevent heart diseases, skin diseases & to achieve proper function of brain, eye etc. Almighty GOD has provided enormous number of mountains, volcanoes etc under the ocean surface for the benefit of mankind.
In some situations the material ejected by the vents related to volcanic activity, hydrothermal vents, crack etc located in ocean floor may contain some chemical components , which after the biochemical processing by bacteria may be transmitted through food chain to upper level of ocean. After the consumption of this transmitted material the bodies of marine animals, plants, rocks /stones etc may developed some attractive colours (Red, Yellow, Blue Green, violet etc, means a colourful Marine World , which has been noticed in case of “Great barrier Reef” located in Pacific Ocean beside eastern coast of Queensland ( Distance of Reef from closest city Cairns is 254 Km ), that belongs to Australia.
Holy Quran about erection of Mountains in the whole World
Sura Ghashiyah 88/18 Do they ( Nonbelievers) not notice on sky , how it is raised aloft ?
Sura 88/19 And on mountains how they are firmly set up ?
Sura 88/20 And on Earth how it is spread out ?
Sura Nahl 16/15 He (ALLAH) has set up the mountains in such a way so that orientation of Earth does not change, & rivers & tracks, so that you may find your way. . Sura Anbiya 21/31
Verse 16/15 & 21/31 may be explained in following way. The total quantity of mountains in northern hemisphere is more than total quantity of mountains in Southern hemisphere. Or total mass due to mountains located in northern hemisphere is more than total mass of mountains located in southern hemisphere. . So gravitation pull of Sun is more stronger on northern hemisphere than the gravitation attraction of Sun on southern hemisphere which makes a situation of inclination angle of axis of Earth always 66.5⁰ with its orbital plane during the complete rotation of Earth in its orbit. It will not change normally until another stronger force is originated by another heavenly massive body, approach very close to Earth. Any major change of inclination angle of spinning axis of Earth would have been change the climate drastically throughout the World, which would have been cause major suffering for all human being. (Inclination angle of axis of Mercury is always 90⁰ with its orbital plane. Inclination angle of axis of Uranus is always parallel to its orbital plane which causes continuous day in northern hemisphere & continuous night in southern hemisphere there. ).
Exhaust gases from automobiles, waste discharges from industries in the form of gas, liquid & solid has polluted surface water belongs to lakes, rivers etc & drinking water preserved as ground water under the surface of Earth. Fossil fuel or non-renewable minerals like Oil ,gas , coal that belongs to continental crust are going to be exhausted within a very short time . Then human being will collect enormous quantity of water from ocean in future & after desalination they will use this water for irrigation, industry , domestic & drinking purpose. Also vast quantity of oil , gas etc preserved as fuel under oceanic crust will be used by automobiles & modern industries. Major portion of protein which belongs to marine fish that contains minerals like iron , zinc, iodine, magnesium, potassium etc, will be consumed by human being in very large quantity as food & to prevent many complicated diseases , including life threatening diseases . Use of .Ocean /Ocean water will be an indispensable part of human life & mankind will be dependant in very large scale on it in near future.
The above text has been published in “ Canadian Dream CBET” an online magazine from Ottawa